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I love to blend my traditional Maine roots and millennial imagination. I have a serious sweet tooth, an Audible addiction, and I'm always up for exploring new places! Your email address will not be published. Recipe Rating. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. Notify me of new posts by email. Subscribe Today Recipes, crafts, travel tips and more! Kate Aspen Jars Buy Now! Wooden Spoons Buy Now!
Holiday Gift Tags Buy Now! Peppermint Essential Oil Get Recipe! Coconut Oil Get Recipe! This 3-Ingredient Peppermint Sugar Scrub is great for soothing tired muscles and reviving dry skin, it's a great DIY gift that can be made in less than 10 minutes! Keyword: peppermint sugar scrub, sugar scrub. Prep Time: 10 minutes. Total Time: 10 minutes. Servings: 1 cups. Author: Rebecca Hubbell. In some regions, people use sugarcane reeds to make pens, mats, screens, and thatch. The young, unexpanded inflorescence of Saccharum edule duruka or tebu telor is eaten raw, steamed, or toasted, and prepared in various ways in Southeast Asia, including Fiji and certain island communities of Indonesia.
It was introduced to Polynesia , Island Melanesia , and Madagascar in prehistoric times via Austronesian sailors. The Persians, followed by the Greeks, encountered the famous "reeds that produce honey without bees" in India between the 6th and 4th centuries BC. They adopted and then spread sugarcane agriculture. In the 18th century AD, sugarcane plantations began in Caribbean, South American, Indian Ocean and Pacific island nations and the need for laborers became a major driver of large human migrations, both the voluntary in indentured servants.
A sugarcane crop is sensitive to the climate, soil type, irrigation, fertilizers, insects, disease control, varieties, and the harvest period. However, this figure can vary between 30 and tonnes per hectare depending on knowledge and crop management approach used in sugarcane cultivation. Sugarcane is a cash crop , but it is also used as livestock fodder. There are two centers of domestication for sugarcane: one for Saccharum officinarum by Papuans in New Guinea and another for Saccharum sinense by Austronesians in Taiwan and southern China.
Papuans and Austronesians originally primarily used sugarcane as food for domesticated pigs. The spread of both S. Saccharum barberi was only cultivated in India after the introduction of S. Saccharum officinarum was first domesticated in New Guinea and the islands east of the Wallace Line by Papuans , where it is the modern center of diversity.
Beginning at around 6, BP they were selectively bred from the native Saccharum robustum. From New Guinea it spread westwards to Island Southeast Asia after contact with Austronesians, where it hybridized with Saccharum spontaneum.
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The second domestication center is mainland southern China and Taiwan where S. It was one of the original major crops of the Austronesian peoples from at least 5, BP. Introduction of the sweeter S. From Island Southeast Asia, S. It was also spread westward and northward by around 3, BP to China and India by Austronesian traders, where it further hybridized with Saccharum sinense and Saccharum barberi. From there it spread further into western Eurasia and the Mediterranean.
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The earliest known production of crystalline sugar began in northern India. The exact date of the first cane sugar production is unclear. The earliest evidence of sugar production comes from ancient Sanskrit and Pali texts. By the 10th century, sources state that every village in Mesopotamia grew sugarcane. Christopher Columbus first brought sugarcane to the Caribbean during his second voyage to the Americas ; initially to the island of Hispaniola modern day Haiti and the Dominican Republic. In colonial times, sugar formed one side of the triangle trade of New World raw materials, along with European manufactured goods, and African slaves.
Sugar often in the form of molasses was shipped from the Caribbean to Europe or New England, where it was used to make rum. The profits from the sale of sugar were then used to purchase manufactured goods, which were then shipped to West Africa, where they were bartered for slaves. The slaves were then brought back to the Caribbean to be sold to sugar planters. The profits from the sale of the slaves were then used to buy more sugar, which was shipped to Europe. France found its sugarcane islands so valuable that it effectively traded its portion of Canada , famously dubbed " a few acres of snow ", to Britain for their return of Guadeloupe , Martinique and St.
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Lucia at the end of the Seven Years' War. Boiling houses in the 17th through 19th centuries converted sugarcane juice into raw sugar. These houses were attached to sugar plantations in the Western colonies. Slaves often ran the boiling process under very poor conditions.
Rectangular boxes of brick or stone served as furnaces, with an opening at the bottom to stoke the fire and remove ashes. At the top of each furnace were up to seven copper kettles or boilers, each one smaller and hotter than the previous one. The cane juice began in the largest kettle.
The juice was then heated and lime added to remove impurities. The juice was skimmed and then channeled to successively smaller kettles. The last kettle, the "teache", was where the cane juice became syrup. The next step was a cooling trough, where the sugar crystals hardened around a sticky core of molasses. This raw sugar was then shoveled from the cooling trough into hogsheads wooden barrels , and from there into the curing house.
In the British Empire , slaves were liberated after and many would no longer work on sugarcane plantations when they had a choice. British owners of sugarcane plantations therefore needed new workers, and they found cheap labour in China, Portugal and India. Lucia , St. Vincent , St.
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Kitts , St. Croix , Suriname , Nevis , and Mauritius. Between and , traders and plantation owners from the British colony of Queensland now a state of Australia brought between 55, and 62, people from the South Pacific Islands to work on sugarcane plantations. It is estimated that one-third of these workers were coerced or kidnapped into slavery known as blackbirding.
Between and , most of the 10, remaining workers were deported in an effort to keep Australia racially homogeneous and protect white workers from cheap foreign labour. Cuban sugar derived from sugarcane was exported to the USSR , where it received price supports and was ensured a guaranteed market. The dissolution of the Soviet state forced the closure of most of Cuba's sugar industry. Sugarcane remains an important part of the economy of Guyana , Belize , Barbados , and Haiti , along with the Dominican Republic , Guadeloupe , Jamaica , and other islands. It is one of the most efficient photosynthesizers in the plant kingdom.
Once a major crop of the southeastern region of the United States, sugarcane cultivation has declined there in recent decades, and is now primarily confined to Florida , Louisiana , and South Texas.
Sugarcane is cultivated in the tropics and subtropics in areas with a plentiful supply of water for a continuous period of more than six to seven months each year, either from natural rainfall or through irrigation. The crop does not tolerate severe frosts. In terms of altitude, sugarcane crop is found up to 1, metres or 5, feet close to the equator in countries such as Colombia , Ecuador , and Peru. Sugarcane can be grown on many soils ranging from highly fertile well-drained Mollisols , through heavy cracking Vertisols , infertile acid Oxisols , peaty Histosols , to rocky Andisols.
Both plentiful sunshine and water supplies increase cane production.
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This has made desert countries with good irrigation facilities such as Egypt some of the highest-yielding sugarcane-cultivating regions. Although some sugarcanes produce seeds, modern stem cutting has become the most common reproduction method. In more technologically advanced countries like the United States and Australia, billet planting is common. Billets stalks or stalk sections harvested by a mechanical harvester are planted by a machine that opens and recloses the ground.
Once planted, a stand can be harvested several times; after each harvest, the cane sends up new stalks, called ratoons. Successive harvests give decreasing yields, eventually justifying replanting. Two to 10 harvests are usually made depending on the type of culture. In a country with a mechanical agriculture looking for a high production of large fields, like in North America, sugar canes are replanted after two or three harvests to avoid a lowering in yields.
Sugarcane is harvested by hand and mechanically.
Hand harvesting accounts for more than half of production, and is dominant in the developing world.